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GENERAL INFORMATION, STRETCHING, STRENGTHENING AND ERGONOMICS OF THE
THE KNEE

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Quadriceps Stretch
These two stretches display how to stretch the quadriceps (a group of muscles at the front of your leg).
(1) The first stretch displays a standing quadriceps stretch. Maintain an upright posture with head and back straight as you pull your foot up and press your hip forward.
(2) Maintain a straight posture whilst lying on your front with head and back straight as you pull your foot up and press your hip forward.
 



         


Hamstring Stretch
The most common way to stretch the hamstrings is to simply bend forward and touch your toes. The following two images display alternative ways of effectively stretching the hamstrings. A good hamstring stretch has great benefits to the whole leg, pelvis and back.



Inside of leg (Adductor) Stretch
These stretches target the muscles on the inside of your leg from your groin to the inside of your knee.
(1) For the first stretch sit on the floor with the soles of your feet placed together. Place your elbows on your knees and gently push them down so you feel a stretch in your groin area. This stretch is adjusted by bringing your heels toward or away from your body. Do not lean forward during this stretch as it places abnormal pressure through your low back.
(2) For the second stretch keep your feet placed relatively straight (slightly pointed outwards). The leg on side you are stretching will remain straight while you bend the opposite knee to create a stretch.
















Psoas Stretch
Place 1 knee on the ground and the other knee flexed to 90 degrees. Keep your body upright with your shoulders in line with your hips. Gently lean forward whilst keeping you head up.
Note: You can make slight adjustments to this stretch by raising your arm (on the side of the knee on the floor) over your head and bending away from that side.



Calf Stretch
All three images below display effective ways to stretch your calf muscle.
(1) The first image shows a standing stretch against a wall. Keep your feet straight (with a slight angle outwards) and lean forwards where you should feel a stretch at the back of your leg. Remember to keep your back foot flat on the floor and straight.
(2) The second image displays hanging your heels off a step and allowing your weight and gravity to cause a stretch at the back of your leg.
(3) The third stretch shows a gentle stretch with a towel (or other pulley). Gently pull up toward your body causing a stretch to the calf muscle.







Foam Roller Quadriceps
Place the foam roller under your quadriceps with your body faced down resting on your elbows (at 90 degrees) and gently roll the foam roller backwards and forwards along the front of your thighs (quadriceps) for 3-5 minutes.


Foam Roller Iliotibial Band
Place the foam roller under the side of your thigh (Iliotibial Band) with your body on its side (hands and legs supporting this position as shown) and gently roll the foam roller backwards and forwards along the side of your your thighs for 30 seconds to 5 minutes. Note: this can be quite a painful exercise so stop at the onset of too much discomfort.


Foam Roller Calf Muscles
Seated on the floor with your hands supporting your body (as shown), place the foam roller under the calf muscle you want to work with the opposite crossed over the top of it. Gently roll the foam roller up and down your calf muscle for 1-5 minutes.


Lunge (Resistance Band)
Secure the band under your front foot and in both hands at chest level (elbows bent up to chest). Bend the knee of your back leg with toes planted on the floor and heel up. Keep your back straight and bend your front knee (lowering your body) then slowly return back to the upright position.


Knee Flexion & Extension (Resistance Band)
(1) Extension: Secure the band on an object (at the level of your ankle when you are lying face down with your knee bent and ankle up as shown) and to your ankle. Start lying face down with your knee bent 90 degrees (theraband running over your body) and gently lower your foot close to the ground then return to the starting position.
(2) Flexion: Secure the band on an object (at the level of your ankle when are lying face down with your leg straight) and to your ankle. Start lying face down with your leg straight (theraband running away from your ankle) and gently raise your foot up until your knee is bent past 90 degrees then return to the starting position.





Knee Extension Seated (Resistance Band)
Secure the band to a chair (at the level of ankle height) and to your ankle. Start seated in the upright position with the band  running backwards from your ankle. Gently extend your leg up to the level of your knee and then back to the start position.


Leg Flexion & Extension (Resistance Band)
(1) Flexion: Secure the band on an object (at ankle level) and onto your ankle starting with your leg by the side of your other leg. Stand facing away from the point where the band is secured. Keeping your knee straight, gently lift your leg in an arc forwards as up to the level of your knee (keep your body straight) and then back to the start position.
(2) Extension: Secure the band on an object at ankle level and onto your ankle starting with your leg by the side of your other leg. Stand facing the point where the band is secured. Keeping your knee straight, gently lift your leg backwards as far as you can keeping the rest of your body straight and then back to the start position.














Leg Adduction & Abduction (Resistance Band)
(1) Adduction: Secure the band on an object (at ankle level) and onto your ankle on the same side starting with your leg by the side of your other leg. Stand adjacent to the point where the band is secured. Keeping your knee straight, gently lift your leg in an arc away from the point of resistance across your other leg as far as you can (keeping the rest of your body straight) and then back to the start position.
(2) Abduction: Secure the band on an object (at ankle level) and onto your ankle on the opposite side.stand adjacent to the point where the band is secured. Keeping your knee straight, gently lift your leg away from your body in an arc as far as you can (keeping the rest of your body straight) and then back to the start position.














Hip Internal & External Rotation (Resistance Band)
(1) Internal Rotation: Secure the band to a chair (at the level of ankle height) and to your ankle on the opposite side (knees together). Start seated in the upright position with the band attached to your ankle running across the back of the other ankle attached to the chair behind the opposite ankle. Keep your knees together and gently rotate your leg by bringing your ankle in an arc away from your other ankle and then back to the start position.
(2) External Rotation: Secure the band to a chair (at the level of ankle height) and to your ankle on the same side (knees together). Start seated in the upright position with the band attached to the leg of the chair closes to your ankle. Keep your knees together and gently rotate your leg by bringing your ankle in an arc across the opposite leg as far as you can and then back to the start position.
(3) Alternate External Rotation: Secure the band around your thighs close to your knees (knees together). Sit on the floor (resting on your elbows) with your feet together. Gently bring your knees apart as far as comfortable and then slowly back to the start position.









Squats (Resistance Band and Bar Bell)
(1) Resistance Band: Secure the band under both feet and in both hands (standing upright). Start the exercise by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the body then return to the upright position. The knees should be in line with the mid line of the toes (the toes should be pointed slightly outwards from the center). Keep your head in an upright position. Note: Start with shallow (squat 1/2 to 3/4 way down) and work down to deeper/full squats.
(2) Bar Bell: Begin from a standing position with the weight of the bar braced across the base of the neck. Start the exercise by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the body then return to the upright position. The knees should be in line with the mid line of the toes (the toes should be pointed slightly outwards from the center). Keep your head in an upright position. Note: Start with shallow (squat 1/2 to 3/4 way down) and work down to deeper/full squats.



Leg Adduction and Abduction Side-lying
These two exercises are gravity assisted exercises that assist in strengthening the muscles on the outside of your leg (abductors in picture 1) and the muscles of the inside of your leg (adductor or groin muscles in picture 2).










Knee Extension Lifts
These exercises are performed with gym equipment and should be performed with instruction from a gym instructor. Ensure good posture and upper body stability throughout this exercise.


Leg Press (Quadriceps)
A simple gym equipment based exercise which focuses on strengthening the quadriceps muscles. This exercise should be initially instructed by a gym instructor for proper use. Your back and pelvis should be stabilised during this movement and all the power should be through your legs.